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Was Ramses II the Pharaoh depicted as "Moses's brother" in the Bible?


1 Kings 6:1 places the Exodus event 480 years before the construction of Solomon's Temple, implying an Exodus at c. 1450 BCE, but the number is rhetorical rather than historical, representing a symbolic twelve generations of forty years each. There are major archaeological obstacles to an earlier date such as this.

“And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord”.

The Torah lists the places where the Israelites rested. A few of the names at the start of the itinerary, including Ra'amses, Pithom and Succoth, are reasonably well identified with archaeological sites on the eastern edge of the Nile Delta, as is Kadesh-Barnea, where the Israelites spend 38 years after turning back from Canaan; other than these, very little is certain.

The crossing of the Red Sea has been variously placed at the Pelusic branch of the Nile, anywhere along the network of Bitter Lakes and smaller canals that formed a barrier toward eastward escape, the Gulf of Suez (south-southeast of Succoth), and the Gulf of Aqaba (south of Ezion-Geber), or even on a lagoon on the Mediterranean coast. The Biblical Mount Sinai is identified in Christian tradition with Jebel Musa in the south of the Sinai Peninsula, but this association dates only from the 3rd century CE and no evidence of the Exodus has been found there.

Ramesses II, who is depicted as the brother of Moses is not correct, Ramesses wasborn c. 1303 BCE; he died July or August 1213 BCE; he reigned 1279–1213 BCE, he was also known as Ramesses the Great and was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt.

The more accurate Pharaoh during the time of Moses would be Thutmose II (1492 to 1479 BC). Thutmose II is best qualified to be the pharaoh of Exodus based on the fact that he had a brief, prosperous reign and then a sudden collapse with no son to succeed him.

His widow Hatshepsut then became first Regent (for Thutmose III) then Pharaoh in her own right. Thutmose II is the only Pharaoh's mummy to display cysts, possible evidence for the plague of boils mentioned in Exodus 9 which spread through Egypt at that time.

Thutmose II's body was found in the Deir el-Bahri Cache above the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut and can be viewed today in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

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