Which books of the Bible did Peter write, and what makes them distinct?
Ultimately, above the human authors, the Bible was written by God. 2 Timothy 3:16 tells us that the Bible was “breathed out” by God. God superintended the human authors of the Bible so that, while using their own writing styles and personalities, they recorded exactly what God intended. The Bible was not dictated by God, but it was perfectly guided and entirely inspired by Him.
Humanly speaking, the Bible was written by approximately 40 men of diverse backgrounds over the course of 1500 years. Isaiah was a prophet, Ezra was a priest, Matthew was a tax-collector, John was a fisherman, Paul was a tentmaker, Moses was a shepherd, Luke was a physician.
One of the chief distinctions of the work is that Pontius Pilate is exonerated of all responsibility for the Crucifixion, the onus being laid upon Herod, the scribes, and other Jews, who pointedly do not "wash their hands" like Pilate.
The Gospel of Peter is more detailed in its account of the events after the Crucifixion than any of the canonical gospels, and it varies from the canonical accounts in numerous details: Herod gives the order for the execution, not Pilate, who is exonerated; Joseph (of Arimathea, which place is not mentioned) has been acquainted with Pilate; in the darkness that accompanied the crucifixion, "many went about with lamps, supposing that it was night, and fell down".
Christ's cry from the cross, in Matthew given as Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? which Matthew explains as meaning "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" is reported in Peter as "My power, my power, thou hast forsaken me"'. Immediately after, Peter states that "when he had said it he was taken up", suggesting that Jesus did not actually die.
Despite being penned by different authors over 15 centuries, the Bible does not contradict itself and does not contain any errors. The authors all present different perspectives, but they all proclaim the same one true God, and the same one way of salvation—Jesus the Christ (John 14:6; Acts 4:12).
Few of the books of the Bible specifically name their author. Here are the books of the Bible along with the name of who is most assumed by biblical scholars to be the author, along with the approximate date of authorship:
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy = Moses - 1400 B.C. Joshua = Joshua - 1350 B.C. Judges, Ruth, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel = Samuel/Nathan/Gad - 1000 - 900 B.C. 1 Kings, 2 Kings = Jeremiah - 600 B.C. 1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah = Ezra - 450 B.C. Esther = Mordecai - 400 B.C. Job = Moses - 1400 B.C. Psalms = several different authors, mostly David - 1000 - 400 B.C. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon = Solomon - 900 B.C. Isaiah = Isaiah - 700 B.C. Jeremiah, Lamentations = Jeremiah - 600 B.C. Ezekiel = Ezekiel - 550 B.C. Daniel = Daniel - 550 B.C. Hosea = Hosea - 750 B.C. Joel = Joel - 850 B.C. Amos = Amos - 750 B.C. Obadiah = Obadiah - 600 B.C. Jonah = Jonah - 700 B.C. Micah = Micah - 700 B.C. Nahum = Nahum - 650 B.C. Habakkuk = Habakkuk - 600 B.C. Zephaniah = Zephaniah - 650 B.C. Haggai = Haggai - 520 B.C. Zechariah = Zechariah - 500 B.C. Malachi = Malachi - 430 B.C. Matthew = Matthew - A.D. 55 Mark = John Mark - A.D. 50 Luke = Luke - A.D. 60 John = John - A.D. 90 Acts = Luke - A.D. 65 Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon = Paul - A.D. 50-70 Hebrews = unknown, mostly likely Paul, Luke, Barnabas, or Apollos - A.D. 65 James = James - A.D. 45 1 Peter, 2 Peter - Peter = A.D. 60 1 John, 2 John, 3 John = John - A.D. 90 Jude = Jude - A.D. 60 Revelation = John - A.D. 90