What impact did King James's 47 Church of England scholars have on the Bible?

Since the fall of Adam in the Garden, God has been working on the perfecting of mankind. In a broader perspective, God has been achieving this one person at a time.

 

 

In this way, God gives EVERY person the opportunity for salvation. Because of mans own selfishness, pride and ego, we tend to desire to be separated from among ourselves, praised, revered and enjoy favor. In the area of God, man has tended to get full of himself when he gets a glimpse of the knowledge of God and is enlightened through his word, and therefore in our efforts to remain highly sought after, compensated, revered and separated, we made the truth less available to the masses and only available through a narrow means. Over the centuries, this was particularly true of the Roman Catholic Church.

 

In a more global since, historically other writings have their place in providing a perspective of mans quest and experiences in seeking God. As evidenced, there are examples of the church, not restricted to the Catholic Church, manipulating Gods word for selfish interest, and in many instances attempting to confuse the faith and keeping the truth unavailable to the masses. That being said, over the last 30 years and more specifically the last 20 years a press of full gospel teachers, Charismatic, Pentecostals and the like. have began the process of a more revealing teaching and access to the Word of God. With this and the addition of the internet, access has never been easier. Through all these and other efforts the Spirit of Gods word prevails through the inspired word of God regardless of translation.

 

 

Beginning with the Catholic Church, the common language of Rome from 510 BC to the end of the Roman Empire which is sometimes placed at 4 September 476 AD, when the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustus, was deposed and not replaced was Vulgar Latin, not Hebrew or Greek. At the third Council of Tours in 813 AD, priests were ordered to preach in the vernacular language, either in the Vulgar Latin, or in the Germanic vernaculars, since the common people could no longer understand formal Latin.

 

Formal Latin was referred to as Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church or Classical Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. Though its pronunciation differs slightly from that of Classical Latin, it is not a distinct language or dialect, but only the Latin language used for ecclesiastical purposes.

 

As a language no longer in common use, Latin has the advantage that the meaning of its words have less likelihood of changing radically from century to century. This helps to ensure theological precision and to safeguard orthodoxy. Accordingly, recent Popes have reaffirmed the importance of Latin for the Church and in particular for those undertaking ecclesiastical studies.

 

At one time only the Priest, Pharisees, Sadducees, Sanhedrin or the rich who could afford an education could read Latin, which made the scriptures unavailable to the common public. Not to mention the availability of any translations.

 

When a man is curious and can neither find the information he is looking for, nor understand what information is given to him because the word is so complicated, confusing or controversial, the masses will give up the quest and lean to their own understanding. He tends to go back to what he knows, his own nature, Sin.

 

Part of what makes the exercise easier for man to do what he wants is the disconnect between the truth of who God is, and mans watered downed, compromising offering of who God is.

 

One effort that has attempted to thwart Gods reconciliation of man is the confusion of Gods word by the conflicting writings and the lack of honesty and availability of honorable men entrusted with the word of God inspired in their hearts in the pulpits of the world. The majority of these modern day Pastors, preachers, evangelist and teachers are selling a watered down version of the Word for a profit. 

 

They are more concerned about not offending the paying masses, and maintaining the status quo than they are spreading the Gospel for what it is on its face.

 

 

The introduction of the internet has vastly improved the access of information overall, unfortunately the internet is an un-policed environment, so to date, the information on the internet is subjective. Anyone can post information at anytime true or false, without validity or context. It is a place for ALL information.

 

Which means it is difficult to find reliable information one way or another in the area of God and Faith, this is an expanded truth. There is no one trusted source for information beyond the purchase of a Bible or other writings. Exposes’ are at the very least again, subjective.

The english translation of the King James Bible is the most important act of the 17th century, this single act took the manipulation of the scriptures out of the hands of the Catholic Church, who vigorously fought the translation of the Bible into English.

 

The King James Version (KJV) of the Bible, traditionally the principal English translation has 66 books.

 

The Bible has been translated into English a number of times, in 1380 John Wiclif, aka "The Morning Star of the Reformation" was the first to translate the entire Bible into English. But, he did it using the Latin Vulgate. Tyndale in 1534, Cranmer in 1539, Geneva in 1557, the Puritan Bible, written by William Whittingham & Anthony Gilby, this Bible which the Queen Mary of England did NOT want translated into English had margins with over 300,000 notes to help in the understanding of the scriptures. This Bible was printed from 1560-1644.

 

The 1611 King James Bible, was translated using the original scrolls in Hebrew and Greek and commissioned by King James Charles Stuart who was born on June 19, 1566 at Edinburg Castle in Scotland.

 

THE TRANSLATORS OF THE 1611 KJV

There were 51 translators of the Bible. Each translator was directly commissioned by King James. The majority of the translators were doctors of divinity from the University of Cambridge, Oxford University, Trinity College and Westminster.

 

The First Westminster Company - Translated the books, beginning with Genesis. They translated the five books of Moses to the end of the Second Book of Kings.

 

This section of the Bibles interpretation is widely considered the best work of all the interpretations. The translators were as follows.

 

LANCELOT ANDREWS

He was appointed to one of the first Greek Scholarships of Pembroke Hall, in the University of Cambridge. Andrews also received a complimentary appointment as Fellow of Jesus College, in the University of Oxford. He was made parson of Alton, in Hampshire; and then Vicar of St. Giles, in London.

 

He was afterwards made Prebendary and Canon Residentiary of St. Paul's, and also of the Collegiate Church of Southwark. In 1589, Dr. Andrews, was chosen Master of Pembroke Hall, It was while he held the office of Dean of Westminster, that Dr. Andrews was made director, or president, of the first company of Translators, composed of ten members, who held their meetings at Westminster.

 

Bishop of Chichester; to which office Dr. Andrews was consecrated, November 3rd, 1605. This was soon after his appointment to be one of the Translators of the Bible.

 

JOHN OVERALL

He was a scholar at St. John's College Cambridge. He was a Fellow of Trinity College, in the same University. In 1596, he was made the King's Professor of Divinity, and at the same time took his doctor's degree. In 1601, on the recommendation of Lord Brook, Dr. Overall was made Dean of St. Paul's, in London.

HADRIAN SARAVIA

He was invited to become Professor of Divinity at the University of Leyden, in 1582; and soon after was also made preacher of the French Church in that city.

 

In 1587 he came to England with the Earl of Leicester, and became master of the grammar school in Southampton, in 1590, Saravia was made Doctor of Divinity at Oxford, He was made Prebendary of Gloucester, next of Canterbury, in 1595; and then of Westminster in 1601.

 

RICHARD CLARKE

He was Vicar of Minster and Monkton in Thanet, and one of the six preachers of the cathedral church in Canterbury.

 

JOHN LAIFIELD

Dr. Laifield was Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Rector of the Church of St. Clement's, Dane's, in London.

 

ROBERT TIGHE

Educated partly at Oxford, and partly at Cambridge. He was Archdeacon of Middlesex and Vicar of the Church of All Hallows, Barking, London.

 

FRANCIS BURLEIGH

Mr. Burleigh, or Burghley was made Vicar of Bishop's Stortford in 1590, which benefice he held at the time of his appointment to the Bible translation.

 

GEOFFRY KING

Mr. King was Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. He succeeded Mr. Spaulding, another of these Translators, as Regius Professor of Hebrew in that University.

 

RICHARD THOMPSON

Mr. Thompson, at the time of his appointment, was Fellow of Clare Hall, Cambridge.

 

 WILLIAM BEDWELL

Mr. Bedwell was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge. He was Vicar of Tottenliam High Cross, near London. He invented a ruler for geometrical purposes, like what we call Gunter's Scale, which went by the name of "Bedwell's Ruler."

 

The Cambridge Company - Translated Chronicles to the end of the Songs of Solomon.

 

EDWARD LIVELY

He was a student, and afterwards a fellow, of Trinity College, Cambridge, and King's Professor of Hebrew. He was actively employed in the preliminary arrangements for the Translation. He was author of a Latin exposition of five of the minor Prophets, and of a work on chronology.

 

JOHN RICHARDSON

He was first Fellow of Emanuel College, then Master of Peter house and next Master of Trinity College. He was also King's Professor of Divinity. He was chosen Vice-Chancellor of the University in 1617, and again in 1618.

 

LAWRENCE CHADERTON

He took his first degree in 1567, and was then chosen one of the Fellows of his College. He became Master of Arts in 1571; and Bachelor of Divinity in 1584. He did not receive the degree of Doctor in Divinity till 1613 when it was pressed upon him. His studies were such as eminently to qualify him to bear an important part in the translating of the Bible. For sixteen years be was lecturer at St. Clement's Church, in Cambridge.

 

FRANCIS DILLINGHAM

He was a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge. After the translation was finished, he became parson of Dean, his native place, in Bedfordshire. He published a Manual of the Christian faith, taken from the Fathers, and a variety of treatises on different points belonging to the Romish controversy.

 

ROGER ANDREWS

Dr. Andrews, who had been Fellow in Pembroke Hall, was Master of Jesus College, Cambridge. He also became Prebendary of Chichester and Southwell. His brother was Lancelot, the Bishop of Winchester.

 

THOMAS HARRISON

He had been student and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; and Vice-Master of that seminary.

 

ROBERT SPAULDING

Dr. Spaulding was Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. He succeeded Edward Lively, as Regius Professor of Hebrew.

 

ANDREW BING

Dr. Bing was Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge. He succeeded Geoffry King, who was Dr. Spaulding's successor, in the Regius Professorship of Hebrew. Dr. Bing was Sub-dean of York in 1606, and was installed Archdeacon of Norwich in 1618.

 

The Oxford Company - Translated the beginning of Isaiah to the end of the Old Testament.

 

JOHN HARDING

At the time of his appointment to aid in the translation of the Bible, he had been Royal Professor of Hebrew in the University for thirteen years. Dr. Harding was also President of Magdalen College.

 

 JOHN REYNOLDS

He first entered Merton College in 1562, he became a Fellow in 1566, at the early age of seventeen. Six years later he was made Greek Lecturer in his college was appointed by the Queen to be Royal Professor of Divinity in the University.

 

THOMAS HOLLAND

He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford; and graduated in 1570. He was made chaplain and Fellow of Baliol College. He was made Doctor in Divinity in 1584. In 1589, he succeeded the celebrated Dr. Lawrence Humphrey as the King's Professor of Divinity. He was elected Rector of Exeter College in 1592. In the translation of the Bible he took a very prominent part. This was the crowning work of his life. He died March 16th, 1612, a few months after this version was completed and published. He was seventy-three.

 

RICHARD KILBY

He went to Oxford and when he had been at the University three years, was chosen Fellow of Lincoln College, In 1590, he was chosen Rector of his College, and made Prebendary of the cathedral church of Lincoln. He was considered so accurate in Hebrew studies, that he was appointed the King's Professor in that branch of literature. He was also so perfect a Grecians that he was appointed by King James to be one of the translators of the Bible.

 

MILES SMITH (Wrote the preface to the Bible in the original translation)

He went to Corpus Christi College. In 1568 he attended Brazen Nose College, where he took his degrees. He was one of the chaplains of Christ's Church. In 1594, he was made Doctor in Divinity. He had a four-fold share in the Translation. He not only served in the third company, but was one of the twelve selected to revise the work, after which it was referred to the final examination of Dr. Smith and Bishop Bilson. Dr. Smith was employed to write the preface to the Bible, which has become rare, and seldom seen by readers of the Bible. It read.. “This noble Preface, addressed by "the Translators to the Reader," in the first edition, "stands as a comely gate to a glorious city." Let the reader who would judge for himself, whether our Translators were masters of the science of sacred criticism, peruse it, and be satisfied.”

 

RICHARD BRETT

He entered at Hart Hall, Oxford, where he took his first degree. He was then elected Fellow of Lincoln College. In 1595, Rector of Quainton in Buckinghamshire. He was made Doctor in Divinity in 1605. He was skilled and versed in the Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Chaldee, Arabic, and Ethiopic tongues.

 

DANIEL FAIRCLOUGH

Daniel Fairclough, otherwise known as Dr. Daniel Featley; He was admitted to Corpus Christi College in 1594; and was elected Fellow in 1602. He was appointed chaplain to Dr. Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, also one of the Translators, by whom he was made Rector of Lambeth, in Surrey. Archbishop gave him the rectory of Allhallows Church, Bread Street, London. He soon exchanged positions for the rectory of Acton, in Middlesex. He was also Provost of Chelsea College; and, at one time, chaplain in ordinary to King Charles the First.

The Second Oxford Company - translated the four Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Revelation of St. John the Divine.

 

THOMAS RAVIS

In 1578, he graduated as Bachelor of Arts; in 1581, he proceeded as Master of Arts; in 1589, he became Bachelor in Divinity; and in 1595, he was made Doctor in Divinity. In 1591, he was appointed rector of the Church of All-hallows, Barking, in London. The next year, he became Canon of Westminster, and occupied the seventh stall in that church. Two years later, he was chosen Dean of Christ's Church College. in 1596 and the year following, he was elected Vice-Chancellor of the University. In 1598, he exchanged his benefice at All-hallows Church for the rectory of Islip. He also held the Wittenham Abbey Church, in Berkshire. In 1604, soon after he was commissioned as one of the Bible-translators, the Lords of the Council requested his acceptance of the bishopric of Gloucester.

 

GEORGE ABBOT

At the age of fourteen, he was entered as a student of Balfor College, Oxford; and in 1583, he was chosen to a fellowship. In 1585, he took orders, and became a popular preacher in the University. He was created Dr. of Divinity, in 1597; and a few months after, was elected Master of University College. He was made Bishop of Litchfield and Coventry on the 3rd of December, 1609.

 

RICHARD EeDES

He became a student of Christ's Church, in Oxford, in 1571. He subsequently took his two degrees in arts, and two more in divinity. In 1578, he became a preacher. In 1584, he was made Prebendary of Yarminster, in the cathedral church of Salisbury and two years later, became Canon of Christ's Church, and chaplain to Queen Elizabeth. In 1596, he was Dean of Worcester.

 

GILES TOMSON

In 1571, he entered University College, Oxford and, in 1580, was elected Fellow of All Souls' College. He was made divinity lecturer in Magdalen College; Chaplain to Queen Elizabeth, He became Doctor in Divinity in 1602; and in that year, appointed Dean of Windsor. In virtue of this latter office, he acted as Registrar of the most noble Order of the Garter. Dr. Tomson took a great deal of pains in his part of translation of the Bible, which he did not long survive. He was consecrated Bishop of Gloucester, June 9th, 1611; and a year after, June 14th, 1612, he died, at the age of fifty-nine.

 

SIR HENRY SAVILE

He graduated at Brazen Nose College, Oxford; but afterwards became a Fellow of Merton College. He became tutor in Greek and mathematics to Queen Elizabeth.

 

JOHN PERYN

Dr. Peryn was of St. John's College, Oxford, where he was elected Fellow in 1575. He was the King's Professor of Greek in the University; and afterwards Canon of Christ's Church. He was created Doctor of Divinity in 1596. When placed in the commission to translate the Bible, he was Vicar of Wafting in Sussex.

 

RALPH RAVENS

He was the Vicar of Eyston Magna, who was made Doctor of Divinity in 1595.

 

JOHN HARMAR

He was educated in William de Wykeham's School at Winchester; and also at St. Mary's College, He became a Fellow of his College in 1574. He was appointed the King's Professor of Greek in 1585. He was headmaster of Winchester School, for nine years, and Warden of his College for seventeen years. He became Doctor of Divinity in 1605.

 

The Fifth Company of Translators at Westminster - Translated all of the Epistles of the New Testament

 

WILLIAM BARLOW

The fifth company of Translators was composed of seven divines, who held their meetings at Westminster. Their portion of the work was the whole of the Epistles of the New Testament. The president of this company was Dr. William Barlow. He was a student of Trinity Hall in the University of Cambridge. He graduated in 1584, became Master of Arts in 1587 and was admitted to a fellowship in Trinity Hail in 1590. Seven years later, Archbishop Whitgift made him sinecure Rector of Orpington in Kent. In 1601, the prebendship of Chiswick was conferred upon him, and he held it till he was made Bishop of Lincoln. In the year 1603, he became at the same time, Prebendary of Westminster and Dean of Chester. This latter prebendship, he held in "commendam" to the day of his death… The King granted Dr. Reynolds's motion for a new translation of the Bible, to be prepared by the ablest divines in his realm. The New King James Version (NKJ)

 

JOHN SPENCER

He became a student of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he graduated in 1577. He was elected Greek lecturer for that College, being then but nineteen years of age. In 1579, he was chosen Fellow of the same College. he became Master of Arts, in 1580, John Spencer entered into orders, and became a popular preacher. He was eventually one of King James' chaplains. In 1589, Dr. Spencer was made Vicar of Alveley in Essex, which he resigned, in 1592, for the vicarage of Broxborn. In 1599, he was Vicar of St. Sepulchre's, beyond Newgate, London. He was made President of Corpus Christi College, Dr. Spencer was appointed to a prebendal stall in St. Paul's, London, in 1612. He was a valuable helper in preparing the common English version of the Bible.

 

ROGER FENTON

He was Fellow of Pembroke Hall, in Cambridge University. He was minister of St. Stephen's, Walbrook, London, to which he was admitted in 1601. He was also presented by the Queen to the Rectory of St. Bennet's, Sherehog, which he resigned in 1606, for the vicarage of Chigwell, in Essex. He was also collated, in place of Bishop Andrews, to the Prebendship of Pancras in St. Paul's cathedral, where he was Penitentiary of St. Paul's. His prebendship of Pancras also made him, Rector of that church.

 

RALPH HUTCHINSON

Dr. Hutchinson, at the time of his appointment, was President of  St. John's College, having entered that office in 1590.

 

WILLIAM DAKINS

He was educated at Westminster School, and admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge, May 8th, 1587. He was chosen Fellow in 1593. He became Bachelor in Divinity in 1601. The next year he was appointed Greek lecturer. In 1604, he was appointed Professor of Divinity at Gresham College, London. He was elected on the recommendation of the Vice Chancellor and Head of Colleges in Cambridge, and also of several of the nobility, and of the King himself. The King in his letter to the Mayor and Aldermen of London, This appointment was given him as a remuneration for his undertaking to do his part in the Bible-translation. He was considered peculiarly fit to be employed in this work, on account of "his skill in the original languages." In 1606, he was chosen Dean of Trinity College; but died a few months after, on the second day of October, being less than forty years of age.

 

MICHAEL RABBET

Bachelor in Divinity, and Rector of the Church of St. Vedast, Foster Lane, London.

 

THE APOCRYPHA

In addition to the first canons translated by King James, he commissioned a second cannon called the Apocrypha translated by the sixth company.

 

ALEXANDER McCLURE Lead the Apocryphal Committee

 

The sixth and last company of King James's Bible-translators met at Cambridge. They were assigned all the Apocryphal books.

The Sixth Company of Translators at Cambridge.

 

JOHN DUPORT, WILLIAM BRAINTHWAITE, JEREMIAH RADCLIFFE, SAMUEL WARD, ANDREWS DOWNES, JOHN BOIS, JOHN WARD, JOHN AGLIONBY, LEONARD HUTTEN, THOMAS BILSON, RICHARD BAMCROFT

 

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